Crisis de financiamiento de la Comisión Interamericana impactará en la protección de derechos humanos en la región

- Entre los efectos más graves e inmediatos están la suspensión de todas las visitas oficiales de comisionados a países este año, de las audiencias programadas para julio y octubre próximos, y la reducción de en un 40% al personal que trabaja en este sistema de protección de derechos humanos.

- El organismo esta semana se encuentra desarrollando su 158° Período Extraordinario de Sesiones en la capital chilena y hoy se reunirá en forma interna para evaluar la situación por la que atraviesa el organismo.

En conferencia de prensa realizada esta mañana, representantes de organizaciones de derechos humanos de distintos países de la región dieron a conocer la declaración pública en que un centenar de organizaciones de América Latina y Europa, además de personas de diversas nacionalidades, exigen a los Estados establecer un fondo de emergencia para revertir la crisis por la que atraviesa la Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos (CIDH), la más grave desde su creación, he hicieron un llamado a adoptar medidas concretas que garanticen su funcionamiento.

Nancy Yáñez, codirectora del Observatorio Ciudadano, hizo hincapié en que “esta crisis no es tan solo financiera, sino fundamentalmente política, lo que en definitiva vulneraliza un elemento fundamental de la democracia, que la defensa de los derechos humanos. Esta es una acción concertada de algunos estados en respuesta a la eficacia de este sistema, que ha puesto en cuestión el modelo neoliberal y extractivo que se ha instalado en nuestros estados, precisamente por su impacto en estos derechos”, señaló. 

“La CIDH ha sido clave en la transición democrática de los países de la región tras las dictaduras, concitando gran respaldo de los estados, pero la actitud cambia cuando hablamos de la industria extractiva y los impactos en las comunidades, retirando sus aportes y sumiendo a la Comisión en la actual crisis. La esencia de los estados es la protección de los derechos humanos, por lo que no es pensable ni admisible que un estado republicano que no cuente ni sustente esta garantía”, añadió la abogada.

Por su parte María José Veramendi, de la Asociación Interamericana para la Defensa del Ambiente (AIDA), destacó que la suspensión de fondos de la cooperación internacional, principalmente europea, “llevará a la desarticulación de grupos con labores específicas, como el que tiene a su cargo la determinación de medidas cautelares”. Agregando es “inaceptable que los Estados no quieran financiar un sistema que ellos mismos crearon. Hoy solo 6% del presupuesto de la OEA es destinado a este sistema de protección. Pero mientras tanto encontramos soluciones estables en el tiempo, hay que adoptar medidas de solución urgentes, y en ello está la necesidad de fondos de emergencia”, planteó.

Gastón Chillier, director ejecutivo del Centro de Estudios Legales y Sociales (CELS) de Argentina aclaró que “si bien esta no es la primera crisis de la CIDH, es sin duda la más grave”, poniendo en riesgo el rol fundamental que ésta ha desempeñado “en contextos de dictadura, donde sentencias como la del caso Operación Cóndor de hace algunas semanas, no habría sido posible sin sentencia de Barrios Altos referida a la ley de amnistía. Así como en una amplia agenda de temas en materia de libertad de expresión, migraciones, pueblos indígenas, en los que sigue siendo una institución fundamental para para el ejercicio de derechos”.
“Esta crisis no habla bien de los estados de la región, pues los aportes que entregan son ínfimos y hacen que en definitiva ésta dependa de organismos internacionales o entidades Europa. Lo que debe ser puesto en discusión. Una comisión debilitada, no es bueno para los pueblos de la región y sus derechos humanos. Los estados deben decir de una vez si están de acuerdo en sostener o no el funcionamiento del sistema. Mientras tanto, como organizaciones estaremos en un estado de movilización permanente”, aseguró.

En la misma línea, Raphaela Lopes, miembro de Justicia Global de Brasil, recordó que como organización han “recurrido en forma reiterada ante la CIDH para defender derechos de comunidades y nuestros pueblos afectados. Y algo que nos preocupa en el contexto actual de Brasil, con un golpe dado por las fuerzas conservadoras y una presidencia temporaria que es representante de grupos de grandes empresarios y de violadores de derechos humanos, es que se agudice la trasgresión de estos derechos, sin un sistema regional de protección fuerte que los reguarde”, recalcó.

En cuanto a la verificación de los daños en las personas vulneradas en su dignidad y derechos, que ha sido uno de los principales aportes del Centro de Salud Mental y Derechos Humanos (CINTRAS) de Chile, “no solo de torturas durante dictadura sino también en el marco de las protestas sociales que actualmente se levantan en Chile, su director ejecutivo, José Miguel Guzmán, relevó que “los medios de comunicación tienen que cumplir el rol de dar a conocer esta situación, que ha nuestro entender es gravísimo”, alertando a la ciudadanía sobre los riesgos de perder estas instancias internacionales de protección.

Finalmente, José Aylwin, codirector del Observatorio Ciudadano afirmó que si bien Bachelet manifestó el compromiso de Chile de cumplir con sus aportes a la Comisión, los que viene reduciendo respecto a años anteriores (a la mitad el 2015, respecto de 2014), esto no es suficiente, “y se debe buscar un mecanismo permanente de financiamiento”. Indicando que “Chile no solo tiene un déficit de carácter financiero respecto a este sistema de protección, sino también con las sentencias de la Corte interamericana a las que no ha dado cumplimiento. Por lo que esta disminución en sus aportes, es también consistente con esta actitud tibia del estado respecto de las condenas que ha recibido de parte de este organismo por vulnerar derechos humanos”. 

La declaración fue entregada en Chile al Presidente de la CIDH, James Cavallaro, así como al ministro de Relaciones Exteriores chileno, canciller Heraldo Muñoz.

Ver Declaración Pública que afecta a CIDH.

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